1537 News Space Weather

WHAT IS SPACE WEATHER?

Our Sun is an extremely active star. Solar activity expels radiation and atomic particles from the Sun during solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Space Weather is how we refer to the variations in the local space environment driven by the expelled radiation and particles and how those variations impact the Earth and human society. Those impacts include: electronic failures in satellites; communication and navigation problems in airplanes; radiation hazards to astronauts; and loss of satellites to atmospheric drag. Electrical power to our homes and businesses can be interrupted by geomagnetic storms driven by blasts from the Sun. The importance of these variations will become apparent as we begin to understand how Space Weather works.

How can there be weather in a vacuum? Compared to Earth’s atmosphere, space is a very good vacuum, better than most vacuums we can create in the laboratory. Surface pressure is about 1013 mbar while the pressure 500 km (300 miles) above the surface is 3 × 10-9 mbar. Another example is the density of particles at different places. There are about 2 × 1019 (a 2 followed by 19 zeros) molecules in each cubic cm of the Earth’s atmosphere near sea level (a mass density of 1.2 kg per cubic meter). This should be compared to a density of 1 to 10 particles per cubic cm in the solar wind as it flows by the Earth.

Schumann Resonance

Schumann Resonance

Dependence of frequencies of the Schumann resonance in hertz on the local time

Local time is expressed in hours of Tomsk Daylight Saving Time (TLDV).TLDV=UTC+7hours.
Dependence of frequencies of the Schumann resonance in hertz on the local time

Dependences of Schumann resonance amplitudes on local time.

Local time is expressed in hours of Tomsk Daylight Saving Time (TLDV). TLDV=UTC+7hours.
Amplitudes
           Dependences of Schumann resonance amplitudes on local time.
           Local time is expressed in hours of Tomsk Daylight Saving Time (TLDV). TLDV=UTC+7hours.

Dependences of Schumann resonance amplitudes on local time.

Local time is expressed in hours of Tomsk Daylight Saving Time (TLDV). TLDV=UTC+7hours.
Amplitudes
                Dependences of Schumann resonance amplitudes on local time.
                Local time is expressed in hours of Tomsk Daylight Saving Time (TLDV). TLDV=UTC+7hours.

Quality Factors: Dependences of the quality factors of the Schumann resonance on local time.

Local time is expressed in hours of Tomsk Daylight Saving Time (TLDV). TLDV=UTC+7hours.
quality factors
                Dependences of the quality factors of the Schumann resonance on local time.
                Local time is expressed in hours of Tomsk Daylight Saving Time (TLDV). TLDV=UTC+7hours.

Critical Frequencies: Dependences of the critical frequencies of the ionosphere on local time.

Local time is expressed in hours of Tomsk Daylight Saving Time (TLDV). TLDV=UTC+7hours.
Critical frequencies
                Dependences of the critical frequencies of the ionosphere on local time.
                Local time is expressed in hours of Tomsk Daylight Saving Time (TLDV). TLDV=UTC+7hours.

Critical frequencies without sporadic layers:
Dependences of the critical frequencies of the ionosphere on local time.

Local time is expressed in hours of Tomsk Daylight Saving Time (TLDV). TLDV=UTC+7hours.
Critical frequencies without sporadic layers
                Dependences of the critical frequencies of the ionosphere on local time.
                Local time is expressed in hours of Tomsk Daylight Saving Time (TLDV). TLDV=UTC+7hours.

Active Heights:
Dependences of the actual heights of the ionosphere on local time.

Local time is expressed in hours of Tomsk Daylight Saving Time (TLDV). TLDV=UTC+7hours.
Active Heights
                        Dependences of the actual heights of the ionosphere on local time.
                        Local time is expressed in hours of Tomsk Daylight Saving Time (TLDV). TLDV=UTC+7hours.



Raw data provided by the National Geophysical Data Center NGDC.

On a 9-point scale, an estimate of the foF2 parameter of the world base is given in terms of the volume and homogeneity of data
in a number of experimental values for each ionospheric station.

The critical frequency of the F2 layer of the ionosphere (foF2) controlled by local time, latitude, solar and magnetic activity, atmospheric wind in the lower atmosphere, and other factors [18,19,20] is one of the most important ionospheric parameters and it is used to understand the ionospheric dynamics and structure.
Based on the degree of database filling, the total number of stations (224 pieces) represents 9 groups with a radius proportional to the degree of filling

In the 1st group there are 8 stations, the 2nd - 10 stations, the 3rd - 11, the 4th - 12, the 5th - 14, in the 6th - 18, the 7th - 22, the 8th - 34,
and in the 9th group - 95 stations.

AIA 304 Å - Solar Region: Transition Region_Chromosphere
Emitted by helium-2 (He II) at temperatures around 50,000 Kelvin.
This light is emitted from the chromosphere and transition region.
SDO images of this wavelength are typically colorized in red.
Credit: NASA/SDO/Goddard



AIA 131 Å - Solar Region: Corona_Flaring Regions
Emitted by iron-20 (Fe XX) and iron-23 (Fe XXIII)
At temperatures greater than 10,000,000 Kelvin,
representing the material in flares.
The images are typically colorized in teal.
Credit: NASA/SDO/Goddard



AIA 193 Å - Solar Region: Corona_Flare Plasma
Emitted by iron-12 (Fe XII) at 1,000,000 K and iron 24 (Fe XXIV)
At temperatures of 20,000,000 Kelvin.
The former, Iron-20 represents a slightly hotter region of the corona The latter, iron-16 represents the much hotter material of a solar flare.
This wavelength is typically colorized in light brown.
Credit: NASA/SDO/Goddard



AIA 335 Å - Solar Region: Corona_Active Regions
Emitted by iron-16 (Fe XVI)
At temperatures of 2,500,000 Kelvin.
These images also show hotter, magnetically active regions in the corona.
This wavelength is typically colorized in blue.
Credit: NASA/SDO/Goddard



AIA 171 Å - Solar Region: Upper Transition Region_Quiet Corona
Emitted by iron-9 (Fe IX) at around 600,000 Kelvin.
This wavelength shows the quiet corona and coronal loops
and is typically colorized in gold.
Credit: NASA/SDO/Goddard



AIA 094 Å - Solar Region: Corona_Flaring Regions
Emitted by iron-18 (Fe XVIII)
At temperatures of 6,000,000 Kelvin.
Temperatures like this represent regions of the corona during a solar flare.
The images are typically colorized in green.
Credit: NASA/SDO/Goddard
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AIA 211 Å - Solar Region: Corona_Active Regions
Emitted by iron-14 (Fe XIV)
At temperatures of 2,000,000 Kelvin.
These images show hotter, magnetically active regions in the sun's corona
The images are typically colorized in purple.
Credit: NASA/SDO/Goddard
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AIA 1600 Å - Solar Region: Upper Photosphere_Transition Region
Emitted by carbon-4 (C IV)
At temperatures of between 5,000 - 10,000 Kelvin.
Carbon-4 at these temperatures is present in the upper photosphere and what's called the transition region,
A region between the chromosphere and the upper most layer of the sun's atmosphere called the corona.
The transition region is where the temperature rapidly rises.
SDO images of this wavelength are typically colorized in dark, grainy yellow.
Credit: NASA/SDO/Goddard
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AIA 1700 Å - Solar Region: Photosphere_Chromosphere
Ultraviolet light continuum, shows the surface of the sun,
as well as a layer of the sun's atmosphere called the chromosphere,
which lies just above the photosphere and is where the temperature begins rising.
SDO images of this wavelength are typically colorized in a grainy pink.
Temperatures: 4,500-5,000 Kelvin.
Credit: NASA/SDO/Goddard
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AIA 4500 Å - Solar Region: Photosphere
White light continuum, shows the sun's surface or photosphere in visible light;
Continuums provide photographs of the solar surface, incorporating a broad range of visible light
in the temperature range of 5,000-6,000 Kelvin and appears in bright yellow.
Credit: NASA/SDO/Goddard
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The magnetogram image shows the magnetic field in the solar photosphere, with black and white indicating opposite polarities.




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